Buffalo Gap is an incorporated town in Taylor County, Texas, United States. It is part of the Abilene, Texas Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 464 at the 2010 census. It is the former county seat of Taylor County, having been supplanted in 1883 by the much larger Abilene to its north. Abilene won the referendum to be the county seat by a vote of 905-269. Buffalo Gap was settled at the site of a natural pass through which bison herds traveled. It was a point on the Great Western Cattle Trail. The community has a few restaurants and art handicraft shops and caters to tourists. Buffalo Gap is the home of the large Buffalo Gap Historic Village, open year-round to visitors.
Buffalo Gap is located at the intersection of Farm-to-Market roads 89 and 1235. It was established in 1857 and procured a post office in 1878. The Callahan Divide, a topographic boundary between the Brazos and Colorado river basins, crosses Buffalo Gap from east to west. Elm Creek once provided a watering hole for buffalo. The Buffalo Gap Highway (Farm Road 89) was surveyed in 1874 and followed the old Center Line Trail, which extended from El Paso to Texarkana on the Texas-Arkansas boundary. Another major road passed through Buffalo Gap in the direction of the abandoned Fort Phantom Hill north of Abilene. The road forked at Buffalo Gap; one branch led southwest to Pecos County, and the other south to Tom Green County, which includes the county seat of San Angelo. Taylor County history centered upon the gap in the Callahan Divide, where during the 1860s and 1870s, buffalo hunters made winter camp and transported their hides to Fort Griffin northeast of Abilene.
As of the census of 2000, there were 463 people, 194 households, and 140 families residing in the town. The population density was 201.7 people per square mile (77.7/km2). There were 235 housing units at an average density of 102.4 per square mile (39.4/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 96.76% White, 0.22% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.65% from other races, and 1.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.24% of the population. There were 194 households, out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 16.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.8% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.77. In the town, the population was spread out, with 23.8% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 30.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.5 males.
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